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Learn about tie dye along with just how it has ended up being an art form in the USA

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Tie-dye is a contemporary term invented in the mid-1960s in the U.s. for a group of age-old resist-dyeing techniques, as well as for the products of these processes. The procedure of tie-dye usually comprises of folding, twisting, pleating, or crumpling fabric or a garment and binding with cord or rubber bands, followed by application of dye(s). The handlings of the fabric before administration of dye are referred to as resists, as they partly or completely hinder the applied dye from coloring the material. More refined tie-dyes incorporate more steps, including an initial treatment of dye preceding the resist, several sequential dye and resist steps, and the use of other kinds of resists (stitching, stencils) and discharge.

Distinct from ordinary resist-dyeing procedures, tie-dye is distinguisheded by the usage of rich, saturated primary colors and bold patterns. These patterns, including the spiral, mandala, and peace sign, along with the use of multiple bold colors, have become cliched since the peak popularity of tie-dye in the 60's and 70's. The vast majority of currently produced tie-dyes use these kinds of designs, and many are mass-produced for wholesale distribution. That being said, a new interest in more ' cutting edge' Tie Dye Hippie Clothes-dye is coming up in the fashion industry, defined by simple motifs, monochromatic color schemes, and a focus on fashionable garments and fabrics other than cotton. A few artisans still pursue tie-dye as an art form rather than a commodity.

A range of dyes can possibly be used in tie-dyeing, including things like household, fiber reactive, acid, and vat dyes. Most early (1960s) tie-dyes were made with retail household dyes, particularly those made by Rit. In order to be effective on different fibers, these dyes are made up of a range of different dyes, and thus are less efficient, and most likely to bleed and fade, than pure dyes designed for certain fibers. This is the foundation for the famous 'pink socks' phenomenon that takes place when fabrics dyed with mixed dyes are washed with various other garments. A large number of <span tie dye hippie dress uk-dyes are now dyed with Procion MX fiber reactive dyes, a class of dyes effective on cellulose fibers like cotton, hemp, rayon, and linen. This class of dyes reacts with fibers at basic (high) pH, forming a wash-fast, permanent bond. Soda ash (sodium carbonate) is the most common agent used to raise the pH and initiate the reaction, and is either added in directly to the dye, or in a solution of water where garments are soaked right before dyeing. Procion dyes are relatively safe and straightforward to use, and are the same dyes used commercially to color cellulosic fabrics.

Protein-based fibers like silk, wool, and feathers, and also the synthetic polyamide fiber, nylon, can be dyed with acid dyes. As may be expected from the name, acid dyes are effective at acidic (low) pH, where they form ionic bonds with the fiber. Acid dyes are also pretty safe (some are employed as food dyes) and straightforward to use. Vat dyes, including indigo, are a third class of dyes that are generally effective on cellulosic fibers and silk. Vat dyes are insoluble in water in their unreduced form, and the vat dye needs to be chemically reduced before they can be used to color cloth. This is accomplished by heating the dye in a strongly basic solution of sodium hydroxide (lye) or sodium carbonate (caustic potash) containing a reducing agent such as sodium hydrosulfite or thiourea dioxide. The fabric is immersed in the dye bath, and right after removal the vat dye oxidizes to its insoluble form, binding with high wash-fastness to the fiber. However, vat dyes, and especially indigo, must be treated after dyeing by 'soaping' to prevent the dye from rubbing (crocking) off. Vat dyes can be used to simultaneously dye the fabric and to remove underlying fiber-reactive dye (i.e., can dye a black cotton fabric yellow) because of the bleaching action of the reducing bath. The additional complexity and safety issues (particularly when using strong bases like lye) restrict use of vat dyes in tie-dye to experts.

Discharge agents are used to bleach color from previously-dyed fabrics, and may be used in a sort of reverse tie-dye. Household bleach (sodium hypochlorite) can be used to discharge fiber reactive dyes on bleach-resistant fibers like cotton or hemp (but not on wool or silk), though the results vary, as some fiber reactive dyes are more resistant to bleach than others. It is important to bleach only as long as called for to obtain the desired shade, and to neutralize the bleach with agents for example, sodium bisulfite, to prevent damage to the fibers. Thiourea dioxide is another commonly used discharge agent that can be used on cotton, wool, or silk. A thiourea dioxide discharge bath is made with hot water is made mildly basic with sodium carbonate. The end results of thiourea dioxide discharge differ noticeably from bleach discharge. Discharge methods, especially using household bleach, are an easily accessible way to tie-dye without having to use of often messy and relatively expensive dyes.

Tie-dyeing was learnt in the United States from 1909, when Professor Charles E. Pellow of Columbia University gathered a number of samples of tie-dyed muslin and then presented a lecture and real time demonstration of the method.

Though shibori and batik treatments were used at times in Western chic well before the 1960s, modern-day psychedelic tie-dying did not come to be a fad until the late 1960s following the example set by rock stars especially Janis Joplin and John Sebastian (who did his own dyeing). The 2011 film narrative Magic Trip, that reveals amateur film footage captured during the course of the 1964 cross-country tour bus voyage of countercultural icon Ken Kesey and his Merry Pranksters, shows the travelers developing a type of tie-dye by taking LSD next to a pond and spilling enamel-based model airplane paint into it, before positioning a white T-shirt upon the surface of the water. Although the process is closer to paper marbling, in the accompanying narrative, the travelers claim credit for creating tie-dyeing.

Tie-dying, especially after the intro of affordable Rit dyes, became popular as a low-cost and accessible method to customise cheap Tee shirts, singlets, dresses, denims, military surplus clothing, and other clothing into psychedelic productions. Some of the leading labels in tie-dye at this time were Water Baby Dye Works (run by Ann Thomas and Maureen Mubeem), Bert Bliss, and Up Tied, the latter receiving a Coty Award for «major creativity in fabrics» in 1970. Up Tied developed tie-dyed velvets and silk chiffons that were used for unique one-of-a-kind garments by Halston, Donald Brooks, and Gayle Kirkpatrick, whilst one other tie-dyer, Smooth Tooth Inc. dyed garments for Dior and Jonathan Logan. In late 1960s London, Gordon Deighton created tie-dyed tops and trousers for young trendy men that he retailed through the Simpsons of Piccadilly department store in London.

Groovy Blueberry is an example of a company which offers locally manufactured tie dye garments. Based in the town of New Paltz NY, which has a substantial hippy community in addition to a thriving student population. Groovy Blueberry supports many different community artisans and is famous throughout the USA and internationally as the premium manufacturer of quality tie dye clothing. Many of the designs are actually one-of-a-kind to Groovy Blueberry and their expertise in tie dye methods is precisely what makes them be distinct as a specialist of tie dye items. To this end you can locate Groovy Blueberry items at several stores all throughout the Usa and around the globe.

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